What is the difference between natural selection and artificial selection?
Charles Darwin is the pioneer of evolution. The theories of evolution explain the reason behind mutation, migration, and genetic drift. Some of these theories are a natural and artificial selection.
The main difference between natural selection and artificial selection is that the former is where nature selects the fittest organisms to cope up and adapt to all conditions whereas the latter is where organisms with desired traits are selected and genetically modified to adapt to certain conditions.
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Comparison Table (Natural Selection vs Artificial Selection)
|Basic Terms||Natural Selection||Artificial Selection|
|Description||It is where nature selects the fittest organism to cope up and adapt to all kinds of situations.||It is where organisms with desired traits are selected and genetically modified to thrive in specific conditions.|
|Chances of Survival||Higher||Lower|
|Process Rate||The slow and long process||Faster|
|Performed on||All organisms||Selected organisms with desired traits.|
|Transformation||Transform the entire population||Brings out a new variety of species|
|Type of Selection||Natural||Man-made selection|
|Occurrence||All kind of population||Only in the domestic population|
|Diversity||A large amount of biological diversity||Bring decrease in genetic diversity|
|Evolution||Facilitates speciation and evolution over many generations.||Do not facilitate the evolution|
|Hybrid vigor||Presence in offspring after evolution||Absent in offspring since it helps to preserve desired traits|
|Effort||No human effort involved||Mainly labor-intensive and expensive|
|Genotype||The proportion of heterozygous genotype is high||The proportion of homogenous genotype becomes high|
|Scale of Occurrence||Occur on a wide scale||Occur on selected individuals|
|Examples||Insecticide resistance, Giraffes long neck, beaks of Darwin’s Finches||Breeding of cows, sheep other domesticated animals
high-yielding varieties of wheat, rice, etc.
What Is Natural Selection?
Natural selection is where the fittest organisms are selected naturally to cope up and adapt to all kinds of situations like weather, nutrition, genetic drift, etc.
It is also one of the primary mechanisms of evolution alongside migration, mutation, and genetic drift. It is one of the theories that were popularized by Charles Darwin.
The theory suggests that any change in the genotype of an organism increases the chances of survival and procreation in future generations.
The natural process results in the establishment of new niches and this fosters speciation. It is something that makes natural selection an essential mechanism of evolution.
The process usually occurs due to differences in survival, fertility, mating success, or in other aspects of the life cycle.
Natural selection examples are Insecticide resistance, Giraffes long neck, beaks of Darwin’s Finches. The process causes an increase in diversity which enhances the increase in heterozygous genotype.
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What Is Artificial Selection?
It is also known as selective breeding. It is a process where organisms with desired traits are selected by humans and genetically modified to develop desirable phenotype traits during breeding.
The selective breeding process does not result in evolution and speciation. The process is relatively faster and the results are seen over a few generations.
The primary purpose of artificial selection for farmers is to increase productivity and better quality. But the process is successful when it begins with purebreds since they have desirable traits.
Artificial selection examples are the breeding of cows, sheep other domesticated animals, and high yielding varieties of wheat, rice, etc. The process decreases genetic diversity in a population.
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Main Difference between Natural and Artificial Selection Class 10
- Natural selection is where fittest organisms are selected naturally whereas artificial selection is where organisms with desired traits are selected by human beings.
- Natural selection increases diversity whereas artificial selection lowers diversity
- Natural selection is a slow and long process whereas artificial selection is a faster process.
- Natural selection operates in a wide scale of the natural population whereas artificial selection operates on selected organisms only.
- Natural selection results in hybrid vigor whereas artificial selection enhances the preservation of desired traits.
- Natural selection enhance chances of survival whereas artificial selection risk the chances of survival in the natural environment
- Natural selection fosters a higher heterozygous proportion while artificial selection fosters a higher homozygous proportion.
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Similarities between Natural and Artificial Selection
- Both affect traits gained by organisms over time
- Both desired traits can be passed to the new generation
- Both are crucial elements of evolution
Natural and artificial selection happens in plants and animals. These mechanisms of evolution result in a new species which has unique traits from their ancestors.
Natural selection pressure is exerted by nature, and artificial selection is where pressure is exerted by human beings. Natural selection is also known as selective breeding and it is man-made.
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