What is the difference between Bohr and Rutherford model?
The structure of an atomic is explained using the Rutherford model and Bohr model. These atomic models provide a deeper scientific explanation of the atom’s properties.
The main difference between the Rutherford model and the Bohr model is that the former does not explain the energy levels in an atom while the latter provides an explanation of energy levels in an atom.
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Comparison Table (Bohr Model Vs Rutherford Model)
|Basic Terms||Bohr Model||Rutherford Model|
|Description||It is an atomic model that explains the movement of electrons in the energy levels or orbit located around the nucleus.||It is atom theory that states that an atom contains a central core where the entire mass is concentrated. Lightweight particles usually move around the core.|
|Observation||The model was developed based on observation of the line of spectra of the hydrogen atom||It was developed based on the observation of a gold foil experiment|
|Energy Levels||Describe the presence of discrete energy levels.||Does not describe the presence of discrete energy levels|
|Size of Orbit||The model explains the relationship between orbital size and energy of the orbital where the smallest orbital has the lowest energy||It does not offer an explanation of the relationship between orbital size and energy.|
|Postulates was given in the year||Niels Bohr in 1922||Ernest Rutherford in 1913|
|Electron frequencies||Emission of radiations of electrons is of specific frequencies||Emission of radiations of electrons is of all frequencies|
|Types of Emission Spectrum||It is in the line of the spectrum||It is a continuous spectrum|
What Is a Bohr Model?
It is an atomic theory that is the modification of the Rutherford model. The atomic theory was postulated by a Danish Physicist known as Neil Bohr in 1922.
The model was developed based on the line of spectra of the hydrogen atoms. The theory states that electrons are always traveling in the orbit shells or orbit around the nucleus.
These orbit shells as indicated by Rutherford-Bohr theory shows that they have different energy levels and have a spherical shape.
The Bohr theory has small negatively-charged electrons that revolve around the positively charged nucleus. One electron in the outermost orbit shell can absorb or release energy.
The postulation of Bohr Atomic Model
- Electrons move around the orbit shells or energy levels.
- Orbits are stationary to provide a fixed circular path
- Each orbit has a certain amount of energy and size
- The energy of the orbit is correlated to its size
- The smallest orbit has the lowest energy
- Radiation is either emitted or absorbed by electrons moving around the orbit shells
Shortcomings of Bohr Atomic Model
- Does not follow the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle.
- Provide the inaccurate value of the orbital angular momentum.
- Does not provide a clear description of the spectra of larger atoms
- Does not explain the Zeeman Effect.
What Is a Rutherford Atomic Model?
The Rutherford atomic model states that the atom consists of a central core and the whole mass of the atom is centrally located in the core. Lightweight particles move around the central core.
It also explains that the central core is positively charged and the constituents that move around the core are negatively charged.
Ernest Rutherford is the scientist behind the discovery of the atomic model in 1913. The Rutherford gold foil experiment spearheaded the research.
The primary purpose of the experiment was to observe the deflection of alpha particles through the gold foil to provide a clear explanation.
Postulation for Rutherford Atomic Model Using Gold Foil Experiment
- Atoms are present in the nucleus and they are positively charged
- The nucleus of the atom is surrounded by negatively charged particles
- An atom is inert or electrically neutral
- An atom is bigger than the nucleus
Shortcomings of Rutherford Atomic Model
- Not suitable for explaining the electromagnetic theory
- Unclear explanation about the line of spectrum and stability of an atom
- Poor description of the electron’s arrangement
Main Difference between Bohr and Rutherford Model
- Bohr model was postulated in 1922 whereas the Rutherford model in 1913.
- Bohr model observation is based on the line of spectra of the hydrogen atom whereas Rutherford model observation are based on gold foil experiment
- Rutherford model does not explain the presence of discrete energy levels while the Bohr model explains the presence of discrete energy levels
- Bohr model provides a relationship between orbit energy and size whereas the Rutherford model does not offer a description between orbit energy and size
- Bohr model emission occurs in the line of the spectrum whereas the Rutherford model is a continuous spectrum
Both Rutherford and Bohr’s atomic model explains the structure of an atom. But the distinction comes with some slight variations. Bohr atomic model proposes the presence of energy levels whereas Rutherford atomic model does not provide an explanation of orbital shells of atoms.
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