Roots are crucial structures in vascular plants. These structures usually grow towards the ground to support plant life. The main purposes of roots are to absorb nutrients, offer anchorage, and storage of foods.
Roots are usually attached to the stems via hypocotyl. This is a special region that helps to enhance root growth. Roots have primary and secondary growth phases.
These vital structures in a plant experience positive geotropism and negative phototropism. The root system of the flowering plant is grouped into monocot and dicot.
So, what is the main difference between dicot and monocot root? The dicot root contains a xylem at the center and phloem on the surrounding. The monocot root has a xylem and phloem around a circular pattern in an alternate manner.
Both types of roots have vascular bundles, cortex tissues, endodermis, and pericycle. You can use the morphological structures and growth regions to tell the differences between dicot and monocot root.
This article provides a detailed explanation of the similarities and differences between the two types of root systems. Take the time to read through for a better understanding.
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Comparison Table (Dicot Root vs Monocot Root)
It consists of a taproot with a single primary root where secondary and tertiary roots develop and grow vertically downwards.
It consists of fibrous or adventitious roots with a wide network of thin roots and fiber roots that originate from the stem.
Type of Root System
Fibrous or Adventitious
Grows throughout the plant life as the taproot.
Stops during the postembryonic development of the roots.
Covered by exodermis
Covered by cortex cambium
Wide and consists of parenchyma cells only.
Narrow with parenchyma and sclerenchyma cells.
Less thick with prominent Casparian strips.
Thicker with less prominent Casparian strips.
Absent in endodermis.
Present in endodermis.
Form the cork cambium and lateral roots.
Always single layered.
Form the lateral root.
Either single-layered or double-layered.
Vascular cambium and cork cambium present.
Cork cambium and vascular cambium absent.
Range from two to six.
Numerous in number.
Both parenchyma and sclerenchyma tissues.
Less developed or reduced.
More developed and prominent.
Present due to cambium
Absent due to lack of cambium
Silica Disposition on Epidermis
Beans, pea, and peanuts, etc. have dicot roots.
Banana, maize, and palm, etc. are examples of monocot roots.
Role of Pericycle
Form cork cambium and lateral roots.
Form lateral roots only.
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What Is Dicot Root?
Dicot root is a root structure common in dicot plants. The root tends to have a tap root-like structure that has a continuous amount of xylem and phloem tissues.
Xylem tissue is normally at the center of the root and surrounded by phloem tissues. Besides that, the xylem has an angular shape.
Dicot roots tend to show secondary thickening and they are connected together by parenchyma tissue in the form of the vascular cambium.
Tap root-like structure is common in dicot plants like peas, mangos, oranges, and peanuts among many others.
What Is Monocot Root?
Monocot root has a fibrous root-like structure which is something common in monocot plants. The fibrous root-like structure tends to lie shallow on the ground surface making the plant easier to uproot.
Xylem and phloem tissue occurs in a ring-shaped orientation. Xylem vessels are oval in shape and connected together by sclerenchyma tissues.
Monocot root does not show secondary growth due to a lack of cambium. Some of the common plants with monocot roots are maize, palm, and bananas.
Differences between Dicot Root and Monocot Root
- Dicot root has planted with two cotyledons while monocot root has planted with a single cotyledon.
- Dicot root has a tap root-like structure and they are narrower while monocot root has a fibrous root-like structure that is comparatively larger.
- Monocot root has large and several xylem and phloem vessels while dicot root has a fewer number of both xylem and phloem vessels.
- Xylem is at the center and surrounded by phloem vessel in dicot root while in monocot root both xylem and phloem are in a ring shape.
- Pericycle in dicot root forms cork cambium lateral roots and vascular cambium while pericycle in monocot root only from lateral roots.
- The pith in dicot root is both very small and underdeveloped or not at all while in monocot root the pitch wide and large in size.
- Dicot roots are loaded with parenchyma connective tissues while the monocot root with sclerenchyma connective tissues.
- Cambium is present in dicot root while in monocot root cambium is absent.
- The size of the cortex in dicot root is quite narrower while that of monocot root is wide and large
- Dicot root typically experiences secondary growth due to vascular cambium while monocot root does not experience secondary growth.
- The older roots of dicot root are enclosed by cork while in monocot root they are covered with exodermis.
- Dicot root examples of plants are beans, peanuts, and mangos while monocot root plants are maize, palm, and bananas.
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Similarities between Monocot and Dicot Roots
- Both have vascular bundles
- Both are used for anchorage
- Both occur in plants
- Both play a vital role in food, mineral, and water transportation
Frequently Asked Questions
- How Are Monocot and Dicot Roots Different?
Monocots have fibrous roots webbed in many directions while dicot has a taproot system that digs deeper into the soil and has other smaller branches.
- Is Rice a Monocot or Dicot?
Rice is a grain that belongs to a monocot plant. Therefore, rice has fibrous roots just like millet, wheat, sugar cane, and corn among many other monocotyledonous plants.
- How Do You Identify a Dicot Root?
Dicot roots have a cortex that is homogenous Endodermis consists of barrel-shaped compact parenchymatous cells. It contains both Casparian stripes and passage cells.
- What is the Difference between Dicot Stem and Dicot Root?
Dicot root has an epidermis that contains root hairs whereas dicot stem has an epidermis that contains trichomes, cuticle, and stomata.
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It is always a good idea to know the plant based on the roots only and this will enable you to understand the full anatomy of the plant in the long run.
The core distinction between the dicot root and monocot root is quite detailed and we hope it has been useful.
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