What is the difference between glucose and sucrose?
Glucose, fructose, and sucrose are the three common types of sugars. These sugars contain the same amount of calories and they tend to occur naturally in fruits, grains, and vegetables.
The lesson provides detailed insights into the difference between glucose and sucrose with a comparison table. Take time to read and know which sugar is not good for your health.
What Is Glucose?
Glucose is a monosaccharide which is the main source of body carb. It is made up of a single sugar unit which cannot be broken down to simpler form.
Glucose happens to be the building block of carbohydrates. They can easily be joined together to form polysaccharide starch or disaccharide lactose or sucrose.
Characteristics of Glucose
- Has a molecular formula of C6H12O6
- Has a molar mass of 180 g/mol
- Occur in powder form
- Tend to be soluble in water
- Melting point range between 146oC and 150oC
- Occur in form of D-glucose or L-glucose.
- They are enantiomers
What Is Sucrose?
Sucrose is a disaccharide made out of glucose and fructose. It can easily be broken down for easy digestion.
Sucrose can be extracted from sugar cane or sugar beets. However, the disaccharide tends to be less sweet when compared to fructose.
Characteristics of Sucrose
- Has a chemical formula of C12H22O11
- Consist of two monosaccharides such as glucose and fructose
- It has a molar mass of 342.29 g/mol.
- Occur in crystalline solid form
- It is a non-reducing sugar
- Tend to be white and odorless
- Melting point is about 185o
Comparison Chart: Glucose Vs Sucrose
|Meaning||Simple sugar||Table sugar|
|Molar Mass||180 g/mol||342.29 g/mol|
|Reduction||Reducing sugar||Non-reducing sugar|
|Glycemic Index||Comparatively high in D-glucose.||Tend to be relatively low|
|Nature of Molecules||Monosaccharide||Disaccharide|
|Taste||Less sweet||Tend to be sweeter|
|Absorption||Cannot be easily broken down for absorption||Can easily be broken down for absorption|
|Sources||Fruits and vegetables||Sugar cane and sugar beets|
Core Difference Between Glucose and Sucrose
- Glucose is a simple sugar whereas sucrose is a table sugar
- The chemical formula of glucose is C6H12O6 whereas that of sucrose is C12H22O11
- The molar mass of glucose is 180 g/mol while sucrose is 342.29 g/mol
- Glucose is a reducing sugar whereas sucrose is a non-reducing sugar
- The melting point of glucose is 150oC while that of sucrose is 185o
- Glucose has a relative high D-glucose whereas sucrose has less amount
- Glucose is monosaccharide while sucrose is a disaccharide
- Sucrose is sweeter than glucose
- Sucrose can easily be broken down to be absorbed whereas glucose is a single compound and cannot be broken down
- The main source of glucose is fruits and vegetables whereas sucrose from sugar cane and sugar beets
Read More: Difference between Glucose and Dextrose
The core difference between glucose and sucrose is that glucose is a simple sugar and sucrose is table sugar. Glucose is a monosaccharide that forms either polysaccharides like starches or disaccharides like sucrose.