What is the difference between genetic and physical mapping?
The inheritance of genes is determined by the arrangement of genes and DNA markers on a chromosome. The map helps to aid the genome sequences.
The main difference between physical and genetic mapping is that physical mapping is based on the actual physical distance between base pairs whereas genetic mapping depends on genetic linkage information.
Comparison Table (Genetic Mapping Vs Physical Mapping)
|Basic Terms||Genetic Mapping||Physical Mapping|
|Meaning||It is the process of determining the order and relative distance between genetic markers on a chromosome||It is a method of determining the order and physical distance between DNA base pairs|
|Markers||Genetic markers||DNA markers|
|Importance||Use genetic linkages||Use visual markers that are short DNA sequences|
|Depend on||Combination and crossing over||DNA sequence on the genome|
|Method||Recombination frequencies||Restriction digestion|
|Role||Probabilities of recombination of events between two points||Determine the actual number of bases between two points|
|Factors||Genetic marker and size of the mapping population||Fragmentation of the genome|
|Accuracy||Less accurate||Quite accurate|
|Importance||Provide evidence on a genetic disorder||Help to identify the origin of a disease|
What Is Genetic Mapping?
It is a method of demonstrating the arrangement of genes and their relative distance on a chromosome by the assistance of recombination frequencies.
These maps are population-specific and the markers are the gene markers. Genetic mapping help to compare order on the chromosomes.
Genetic maps depend on genetic linkage, recombination, and crossing over. Besides that, it provides less accurate evidence.
What Is Physical Mapping?
It is a technique used to determine the actual distance between two genes. The main form of physical mapping is a restriction, FISH, and STS mapping.
These physical maps depend on DNA sequence on the genome. These maps rely on restriction digestion and they provide more accurate evidence about the origin of a disease.
Main Difference between Genetic and Physical Mapping
- Genetic mapping provide less accurate evidence while physical mapping provide more accurate evidence
- Genetic mapping provide concrete evidence on genetic disorders while physical mapping provide firm evidence about the origin of diseases
- Size of mapping population and genetic markers are vital factors of genetic mapping whereas fragmentation on the genome is the main factor of physical mapping
- Genetic mapping provide probabilities of recombination of events between two points while physical mapping determines the number of the base between two points
- Genetic mapping relies on recombination and crossing over while physical mapping rely on DNA sequence on the genome
- Genetic maps are based on recombination frequencies whereas physical maps are based on restricted digestion
- Genetic maps depend on genetic linkage whereas physical maps depend on visual markers that are short DNA sequence on the genome
Read More: Difference between Hybridization and Inbreeding
Similarities between Genetic and Physical Mapping
- Both are the type of genome mapping techniques
- Both involve the use of molecular markers
- Both allow the identification of genes
- Both help to identify genetic elements associated with diseases
- Both are the initial process of many downstream processes
Genetics is the study of inheritance. The gene mapping technique helps to determine the actual cause of genetic disorder and diseases.
Genetic mapping and physical mapping are the two main forms of genome mapping. These techniques help to identify genetic elements linked to certain disorders and diseases.
The core difference between genetic and physical mapping is that genetic mapping is a method that helps determine the order and relative distance between genetic markers on a chromosome while physical mapping is a technique for determining the order and the actual distance between DNA base pairs.
More Sources and References
Genetic and Physical Map Correlation. Online Library
Mapping Genomes. NCBI