10 Big Difference between Cofactor and Coenzyme with Table

What is the difference between cofactor and coenzyme?

The body of human beings consists of millions of cells, tissues, organs, groups, and enzymes that play a vital role. Understanding these organs, cells, enzymes, and systems can be quite difficult.

The core difference between cofactor and coenzyme is that cofactor is a non-protein chemical compound that binds with enzymes while coenzyme is an organic compound that carries chemical groups between enzymes.

Difference between Cofactor and Coenzyme

What Is Cofactor?

A cofactor is a non-protein compound that binds with enzymes and other protein molecules. They are further divided into coenzymes and prosthetic groups.

Cofactors are also known as helper molecules. They are known for activating the inactive form of enzymes such as holoenzyme. They can either be metals or coenzymes.

Table of Enzymes and their Metal Ions Requirements

Enzymes or Proteins Metal Ions
Carbonic anhydraseZn2+
Alcohol dehydrogenaseZn2+
Cytochromes, hemoglobinFe2+ or Fe3+
FerredoxinFe2+ or Fe3+
Cytochrome oxidaseCu+ or Cu2+
Pyruvate phosphokinaseK+ and Mg2+

What Is Coenzyme?

The coenzyme is an organic molecule that is non-protein in nature and it carries chemical groups between enzymes.

Coenzymes are normally modified during the reaction and another coenzyme is required to restore them into their original state.

Coenzymes are also known as co-substrate and they are regenerate into the body. The concentration of coenzyme needs to be maintained.

Types of Coenzymes and their Functions

CoenzymesFunctions
Carbamide coenzymes (vit. B12)Alkyl groups
NAD (nicotine adenine dinucleotide)Electron (hydrogen atom)
BiotinCarbon dioxide
NADP (nicotine adenine dinucleotide phosphate)Electron (hydrogen atom)
Pyridoxine (pyridoxal phosphate) (vit B6)Amino groups
FAD (flavine adenine dinucleotide) (Vit.B2)Electron (hydrogen atom)
Thiamine (thiamine pyrophosphate) (vit. B1)Aldehydes
CoA (coenzyme A)Acyl groups
CoQ (coenzyme Q)Electrons (hydrogen atom)

Comparison Chart: Cofactor Vs Coenzyme

Basic TermsCofactorCoenzyme
MeaningRefer to a small non-protein molecule required for enzyme activityRefer to organic non-protein compound that binds with enzymes to speed up the reaction
NatureInorganic compoundsOrganic compounds
TypesCoenzymes and prosthetic groupsCofactor
Molecule/CompoundCompoundsMolecules
BindingCovalently bound to enzymesLoosely bound to enzymes
FunctionFacilitate the function of enzymesSupport biological transformation
RoleIncrease the rate of the reaction catalyzed by enzymesServe as the carrier of enzymes
RemovalCan be removed by denaturing enzymesCan easily be removed since they are loosely bound
ExamplesThey include metal ions such as metal ions like zinc (Zn2+), K+ and Mg2+Vitamins, biotin, coenzyme A

Core Differences between Cofactor and Coenzyme

  1. Cofactor bind to an enzyme while coenzyme is a carrier of enzymes
  2. The alternative name of the cofactor is helper molecules while that of the coenzyme is cosubstrates
  3. Cofactor bind covalently with enzymes while coenzymes are loosely bound with enzymes
  4. Coenzyme can easily be removed while cofactor can be removed through denaturing enzymes
  5. A cofactor is a chemical compound while coenzyme is a chemical molecule
  6. A cofactor is an inorganic substance while coenzyme is an organic substance
  7. Coenzyme act as carriers while cofactor increase the rate of reaction
  8. The coenzyme is meant for biological transformation while cofactor is meant to aid enzyme activity
  9. Type of cofactors are coenzymes and prosthetic groups while coenzymes are cofactors
  10. Examples of cofactors are Zn2+, K+, and Mg2+ while coenzymes are vitamins, biotin, and coenzyme A

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Comparison Video

Summary

Coenzymes are organic molecules that bind loosely with enzymes while cofactors are organic compounds that bind covalently with enzymes. The binding nature help determines how they can be removed.

 

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