what is the difference between angiosperm and gymnosperm?
The kingdom Plantae has both flowering and non-flowering plants. The diversity of angiosperm and gymnosperm tends to confuse many learners.
The core difference between angiosperm and gymnosperm is that angiosperm is plants that bear seeds that are covered inside the fruit while gymnosperm is a plant with naked seeds.
What Is Angiosperm?
Angiosperm are plants that bear seeds that are enclosed inside the fruit. These plants have a proper root system for absorbing water and mineral ions.
The stem has well developed vascular bundles that transportation of water and food to various parts of the plants. The leaves help in the translocation of food.
Examples of angiosperms are roses, peas, grains, lettuce, lilies, daffodils, sunflowers, maples, and orchids.
What Is Gymnosperm?
Gymnosperm is a plant that bears seeds that are not enclosed inside a fruit. These types of seeds are known as naked seeds.
These plants do not have stigma and ovary. But they have stems and roots for transporting and absorbing water as well as mineral ions.
Examples of gymnosperm are pine, conifers, cycads, Gnetophytes, Ginkgo, spruce, cactus, and fir.
Comparison Chart: Angiosperm vs Gymnosperm
|Definition||It is a flowering plant that bears fruits enclosed inside the fruit||It is a non-flowering plant that bears seeds that are not enclosed inside the fruit.|
|Pollination||Insect pollination||Wind pollination|
|Root system||Have well-developed root system starting from a taproot and root hairs||Have only taproot and lack root hairs|
|Types of branches||Only long shoot||Both long and dwarf shoot|
|Sporophylls||Accumulate to form flowers||Accumulate form cones|
|Bisexual/unisexual||Generally bisexual||Generally unisexual|
|Endosperm||Derived from fertilization of the sperm nucleus with two polar nuclei to form a triploid||Derived from female gametophyte to form a haploid|
|Stomata||Have true stomata||Have sunken stomata|
|Flowers||Produce flowers||Do not produce flowers|
|Vascular vessel||Have the well-developed vascular vessel||Lack of vascular vessel|
|Companion cell||Have a companion cell in phloem tissue||Do not have companion cells|
|Fertilization||Have double fertilization to form a zygote (2n) and endosperm (3n)||Has single fertilization that occurs in ovules to form a zygote (2n)|
|Leaves||Have broad and flat leaves||Have needle-like leaves|
|Gametophyte Structures||The male and female gametophyte is part of the flower||Have separate male and female gametophyte|
|Life cycle||Sporophyte generation||Alternation of generation|
|Mature pollen||Consists of two sperm nuclei||Consist of three cells|
|Nuclei||Mature embryo sac contains 7 cells with a total of 8 nuclei.||Mature gametophyte contains 2-3 archegonia|
|Archegonia||Absence in a mature megagametophyte||Present in a mature gametophyte|
|Examples||Roses, peas, grains, lettuce, lilies, daffodils, sunflowers, maples, and orchids.||Pine, conifers, cycads, Gnetophytes, Gingko, spruce, cactus and fir|
Core Difference between Gymnosperm and Angiosperm
- Angiosperm is a seed-bearing plant which is enclosed in an ovary while gymnosperm seeds are not enclosed in the ovary
- An alternative name to angiosperm is hardwood while gymnosperm is softwood
- Gymnosperm has archegonia in a mature gametophyte while angiosperm do not have archegonia in a mature megagametophyte
- Gymnosperm depend on wind for pollination while angiosperm depend on insect pollination
- Angiosperm have a well-developed root system and stem modification while gymnosperm has only developed taproot system
- Gymnosperm has two branches such as long and dwarf shoots while angiosperm has only one type of branch
- Gymnosperm have haploid derived from female gametophyte while angiosperm has triploid derived from fertilization of the sperm nucleus with two polar nuclei
- Angiosperm have true stomata while gymnosperm have sunken stomata
- Angiosperm produce flowers while gymnosperm have no flowers
- Angiosperm have companion cells in the phloem tissue while gymnosperm lack companion cells
- Gymnosperm have lack vascular vessels while angiosperm have developed vessels
- Angiosperm experience double fertilization while gymnosperm single fertilization
- Gymnosperm have needle-like leaves while angiosperm have broad and flat leaves
- Gymnosperm bear cones while angiosperm do not bear cones
- Angiosperm male and female gametophyte occur on the same plant while gymnosperm have separate male and female gametophyte
- Mature pollen grains of gymnosperm has three cells such as one tube cell and two sperm cells while angiosperm has two sperm nuclei
- The life cycle of angiosperm is sporophyte generation while that of gymnosperm is an alternation of generation
- Angiosperm is bisexual while gymnosperm are unisexual
- Sporophyte accumulate in angiosperm to form flowers while in gymnosperm to form cones
- Ovules of angiosperm are funiculus while those of gymnosperm are sessile
- Angiosperm have stigma and style while gymnosperm has no stigma and style
- The megasporophyll of angiosperm from carpels while that of gymnosperm from the woody part
- Angiosperm have sepals and petals while gymnosperm lack petals and sepals
- Angiosperm has four microsporangia while that of gymnosperm varies from two to hundreds
- Angiosperm has a narrow micropyle while gymnosperm has a wider micropyle
- Examples of angiosperm are orchids, lilies, agaves, and grasses while gymnosperm is pine, spruce, cycas, fir, etc.
Read More: Difference between Plant and Animal Vacuole
Similarities between Angiosperm and Gymnosperm
- Both have seeds
- Both belong to the same kingdom
- Both have pollen tubes
- Both have cambium
- Both have a differentiated body system
The main difference between gymnosperm and angiosperm is that gymnosperm has naked seeds while angiosperm has enclosed seeds in the ovary. Besides that, gymnosperm does not bear flowers while angiosperm bear flowers.