10 Difference between Sociology and Anthropology (With Table)

What is the main difference between sociology and anthropology? The former involves the study of human societies and social behavior, while the latter involves the study of human culture, societies, and their evolution.

They do indeed share similarities, but their focus diverges significantly. Anthropology delves into the study of individual human behavior at a micro-level, using specific examples to illustrate broader cultural patterns.

In contrast, sociology adopts a wider lens, frequently examining overarching societal dynamics, including political movements and the intricate power dynamics among various social groups.

Difference between Sociology and Anthropology with Table

Basic Terms Sociology Anthropology
Focus of Study Study of human societies and social behavior within those societies. Study of human cultures, societies, and their evolution, including both past and present societies.
Scope of Research Focuses on contemporary human societies, often in an urban context. Encompasses both contemporary and historical societies, including small-scale and non-industrialized societies.
Research Methods Employs a wide range of research methods, including surveys, interviews, statistical analysis, and participant observation. Utilizes ethnography, participant observation, and fieldwork as primary research methods, often involving immersion in the culture being studied.
Time Perspective Primarily examines the present and recent history of societies. Examines societies across different time periods, from ancient to contemporary.
Specializations Includes subfields such as criminology, sociology of education, and sociology of religion. Includes subfields like cultural anthropology, linguistic anthropology, and archaeology.
Research Focus Investigates social institutions, structures, and the behavior of groups and individuals within society. Explores culture, rituals, kinship, language, and the holistic aspects of societies.
Theoretical Framework Often uses sociological theories like structural functionalism, conflict theory, and symbolic interactionism. Uses anthropological theories such as cultural relativism, cultural evolution, and functionalism.
Geographic Scope Primarily focuses on societies within a specific nation or region. Studies societies across the globe, emphasizing cross-cultural comparisons.
Application Provides insights into social issues and policy development within contemporary societies. Offers insights into cultural diversity, human evolution, and adaptation to various environments.
Field of Influence Influences social policy, urban planning, and social work. Contributes to fields like archaeology, international development, and cultural preservation.

What Is Sociology?

Sociology is a social science discipline that systematically studies human societies, their interactions, and the various elements that shape social behavior and organization. It seeks to understand how individuals are influenced by the larger social structures, institutions, norms, and values of the societies in which they live.

Sociology explores a wide range of topics, including family dynamics, education, religion, politics, inequality, crime, and social change.

Sociologists use a variety of research methods, including surveys, interviews, participant observation, and statistical analysis, to gather and analyze data about human behavior and social patterns.

The discipline aims to uncover patterns, trends, and insights into the way societies function, how they evolve over time, and how they impact individuals and groups.

Sociology is not only an academic field but also has practical applications in areas such as social policy, urban planning, and social work, where its findings can inform and improve the quality of life in societies.

What Is Anthropology?

Anthropology is a holistic social science discipline that studies human beings, their cultures, societies, and behavior, both in the present and throughout history.

It seeks to understand the diversity of human experiences and the interconnectedness of human societies across time and space.

Anthropologists explore a wide range of topics, including cultural practices, social structures, language, kinship, belief systems, and the ways in which humans adapt to their environments.

One of the distinctive features of anthropology is its use of ethnographic research methods, which involve long-term immersion in a community or culture to gain deep insights and understanding.

Anthropologists often conduct fieldwork, living among the people they study, to observe and participate in their daily lives.

Anthropology is divided into subfields, including cultural anthropology, linguistic anthropology, archaeology, and physical anthropology, each focusing on different aspects of human existence.

It provides valuable insights into the richness of human diversity, the evolution of cultures, and the ways in which societies interact and change over time.

Anthropology’s findings have applications in areas such as cultural preservation, international development, and understanding human origins.

Main Difference between Sociology and Anthropology

  1. Sociology is a social science focused on the study of society, including its structure, patterns of relationships, and everyday life interactions. Conversely, Anthropology is a social science that explores the origins, development, and behavior of human beings.
  2. Sociology examines people living in interdependent societies, while anthropology explores human beings, their evolutionary history, adaptations, interactions, and differences from other species.
  3. Sociologists study human behavior and its causes and consequences at a group or societal level, whereas anthropologists examine behavior at the individual level.
  4. Sociology aims to address societal issues through policies and interventions, while anthropology’s primary goal is to understand human diversity and cultural distinctions.
  5. Sociology investigates both literate and preliterate societies, encompassing modern and ancient cultures. In contrast, Anthropology focuses solely on preliterate societies, which are uncivilized, ancient, and lack a writing system for communication.
  6. Sociologists employ both qualitative and quantitative research methods. Conversely, anthropologists primarily utilize qualitative research methods.

Similarities between Sociology and Anthropology

  1. Both are social sciences that study various aspects of human societies, cultures, and behaviors.
  2. Both disciplines take a holistic approach to understanding human phenomena, considering multiple factors and perspectives.
  3. Both can involve fieldwork and ethnographic research methods, requiring immersion in the culture or society being studied.
  4. Both draw from other disciplines, such as psychology, economics, and history, to enrich their understanding.
  5. Both require cultural sensitivity and a non-judgmental approach when studying diverse societies and cultures.
  6. Both explore diversity within and among societies, acknowledging that no single perspective or culture can represent all of humanity.
  7. Both frequently use qualitative research methods to gather in-depth insights and narratives from the subjects of study.
  8. Findings from both fields can inform social policies and interventions aimed at addressing societal issues.


Sociology and Anthropology are distinct yet complementary social sciences. Sociology primarily focuses on the study of contemporary human societies, emphasizing group-level behavior and societal issues, and often employing a range of research methods, including both qualitative and quantitative approaches. Its scope extends to understanding and addressing social problems and policy implications.

Anthropology takes a broader temporal and cultural perspective, encompassing the study of human beings throughout history and across diverse cultures. It emphasizes qualitative research methods, such as ethnography, and aims to uncover the intricacies of individual behavior and cultural diversity. Anthropology also provides valuable insights into human evolution and adaptation.

While these disciplines differ in their areas of emphasis and research methods, they both contribute significantly to our understanding of human societies, shedding light on the complexity, diversity, and interconnectedness of human behavior and culture across the globe.

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