What is the difference between transpiration and guttation?
Plants need water and food for survival. Excess water from the plants can be removed through the process of transpiration and guttation. However, the two processes tend to be quite different.
The core difference between transpiration and guttation is that transpiration is the removal of water through stomata found in leaves while guttation is the process of water removal through hydathodes.
What Is Transpiration?
Transpiration is the evaporation of water in the form of water vapors through the stomata, cuticle of the leaf, and lenticels of a young stem.
Stomata tend to open during the process of photosynthesis in the presence of sunlight. The photosynthesis process requires water for translocation and the excess water is removed through transpiration.
Factors that Affect Transpiration Process
- Temperature and humidity of the atmosphere
- Number of stomata on the leaves
- Water supply in the plants
- Speed of the wind
- Amount of light obtained by the plant
- Number of leaves and their sizes
- Presence or absence of the cuticle
What Is Guttation?
Guttation is the loss of water by plants through hydathodes which are present along the margin of the leaf of herbaceous plants in the form of liquid.
Hydathodes are a special type of stomata and are also known as water stoma. The process tends to occur in the morning when the level of atmospheric humidity is high.
The liquid that comes out of the hydathodes in xylem sap. It normally contains both organic and inorganic compounds in water.
Comparison Table: Transpiration Vs Guttation
|Meaning||Refers to evaporation of water from the stomata||Refers to the secretion of water droplets through hydathodes|
|State of the Loosing Water||Water vapor||Liquid droplets|
|Composition||Pure water||Sugar, amino acids, and salts|
|Location of occurrence||Stomata, cuticle, lenticel stems||Hydathodes|
|Types of Plants||Terrestrial and herbaceous plants||Only on herbaceous plants|
|Conditions||When the temperature is high and the presence of light||Cold hours in the morning and at night|
|Humidity||Dry condition||Humid condition|
|Loos of Water through Diffusion||Highly favored||Not favored|
|Factors||Opening and closing of stomata||Presence of water in the plant|
|Development of Root Pressure||Result in the development of root pressure||Play a minor role in the development of root pressure|
|Wilting||Excess transpiration causes wilting||Does not cause wilting|
Core Differences between Guttation and Transpiration In Point Form
- Transpiration process takes place through stomata and lenticel while guttation through hydathodes
- Transpiration water is lost in the form of water vapor while guttation in the form of liquid droplets
- Guttation is a secretion while transpiration is not a secretion
- Guttation occurs in the early morning or late night while transpiration occurs during the day
- Guttation only occur through the margin of the leaves while transpiration from all parts of the body
- Transpiration is favored by dry conditions while guttation is not favored by dry conditions
- Humid conditions tend to favor guttation while reduces transpiration rate since it does not support the diffusion
- Water loss during transpiration is enhanced by simple diffusion while guttation does not take place by diffusion
- Excessive transpiration can cause wilting of plants while guttation never wilt plants
- Transpiration is regulated by opening and closing of stomata while guttation is not regulated at all.
- Guttation is influenced by humidity and availability of water while transpiration by a number of stomata, wind flow, and temperature
- Transpiration enhance only pure water to evaporate while guttation enhance loss of sugars, amino acids, and salts
- Transpiration occurs in terrestrial and herbaceous plants while guttation only in herbaceous plants
- Transpiration does not involve root pressure while guttation involve root pressure development
- Transpiration occurs in the presence of sunlight and high temperature while guttation occur early in the morning
Similarities between Transpiration and Guttation
- Both occur on plants
- Both primarily occur on leaves
- Both involve water loss through pores
- Both cause permanent water loss
- Both play a role in cooling plants
- Both help in pulling water into the plant
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The core difference between guttation and transpiration is that guttation is the loss of water in the form of liquid droplets via hydathodes while transpiration is the loss of water in the form of vapor through stomata.