20 Explained Difference between Prokaryotic Cells and Eukaryotic Cells

What is the difference between prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells?

Both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells are types of cells that exist on the earth. These two key terms help to bring structural differences among cells.

In this lesson, you will discover the core difference between prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells. Besides that, you will also learn about their similarities.

Difference between Prokaryotic Cells and Eukaryotic Cells

What Are Prokaryotic Cells?

Prokaryotic cells are those cells that lack nucleus and membranes to enclose the organelles. This implies that the DNA in prokaryotic cells is not encased within a membrane.

Examples of living things that are prokaryotes are bacteria and Archaea. Bacteria are single-cell while archaea are multicellular.

Here are some of the parts that are quite common in prokaryotic cells. They include:

  • Cytoplasm: These are materials found inside a cell except the nucleus.
  • Cell wall: The structure that surrounds the cell and offers maximum protection
  • Nucleoid: The region where the genetic material of the cell is kept.
  • Flagella and Pili: These are filaments made of proteins and they occur outside the prokaryotic cells.
  • Plasmid: A small molecule of DNA in the cell that reproduces independently.

What Are Eukaryotic Cells?

Eukaryotic cells are those cells that have well-defined nucleus and organelles that perform different functions.

Examples of living things that have eukaryotic cells are algae, fungi, plants, protozoa, and animals. These organisms can either be a single cell or multicellular.

Some of the common organelles quite common in Eukaryotes include:

  • Nucleus: The region where the genetic material of a cell is stored.
  • Cytoplasm: The part where most cell organelles are located and also where metabolic activities of the cell are taking place.
  • Chloroplast: Quite common in plants and algae. The region where sunlight energy is converted into food.
  • Mitochondria:  Responsible for making ATP
  • Ribosomes: Responsible for protein synthesis
  • Cytoskeleton: Offer maximum support to the cell.

Prokaryotic Vs Eukaryotic Cells Comparison Chart

Basic Terms     Prokaryotic CellsEukaryotic Cells
Genetic InformationDNA found in the cytoplasmDNA found in the nucleus
OrganellesLack of nucleus and membrane-bound organellesHave a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles.
SizeTend to be small (0.5-3um)Tend to be large (2-100um)
Cell DivisionBinary fissionMitosis
Number of ChromosomesOne strandSeveral strands
Type of CellSingle-cellMulticellular
ChloroplastScattered in cytoplasmNumerous in plants and algae
LysosomesAbsentPresent
Mode of reproductionAsexuallySexual
RibosomesThe 70sThe 80s
MitochondriaAbsentPresent
Presence of NucleusHave no well-defined nucleusHave well-defined nucleus
Cell wall  Comprise of peptidoglycan or mucopeptideComprise of cellulose only present in plant cells and fungi cells.
Golgi ApparatusAbsentPresent
Endoplasmic ReticulumAbsentPresent
ReplicationSingle-originMultiple origins
Transcription and TranslationOccur all togetherTranslation occurs in the cytosol while transcription occurs in the nucleus
Plasma membrane with steroid           AbsentPresence
Nuclear membrane permeabilityNot presentQuite selective
ExampleBacteria and archaeaPlants and animals

Core Differences Between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells

  1. Prokaryotic cells are quite common in single-cell organisms while eukaryotic cells are quite common in multicellular organisms.
  2. Eukaryotic cells are quite modified and large in size while prokaryotic cells are primitive and small in size.
  3. Eukaryotic cells have well-defined organelles such as mitochondria, ribosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, etc, unlike prokaryotic cells.
  4. Prokaryotic cells have no defined nucleus while eukaryotic cells have a well-defined nucleus.
  5. Cell division in eukaryotic cells occurs through mitosis while in prokaryotic through binary fission.
  6. Genetic materials in eukaryotic cells occur in linear and double-strand whereas in prokaryotic cells it occurs in circular and double-strand.
  7. Eukaryotic cells reproduce sexually while prokaryotic cells reproduction occur asexually.
  8. Prokaryotes are simple cells whereas eukaryotes are complex cells.
  9. Prokaryotic cells have continuous transcription and translation whereas eukaryotic cells experience the process of translation and transcription
  10. Prokaryotic cell regulatory mechanism of DNA is simple whereas eukaryotic cell regulatory mechanisms of DNA are complex
  11. Prokaryotic cell duration is about 20-60 minutes while eukaryotic cell duration highly varies up to 24 hours
  12. Eukaryotic cells have well-developed and advanced communication system whereas prokaryotic cells have an under-developed intracellular and extracellular communication system 
  13. Eukaryotic cell have cytoplasmic movement whereas prokaryotic cell does not have cytoplasmic movement 
  14. Nitrogen-fixing is present in prokaryotic cells and absent in eukaryotic cells 
  15. Photosynthesis takes place in the membrane of the cytoplasm of prokaryotic cells whereas taking place in the chloroplast of eukaryotic cells
  16. Eukaryotic cells experience respiration in the mitochondria whereas prokaryotic respiration experience respiration in the mesosomes
  17. Eukaryotic cells have cytoskeleton whereas prokaryotic cells lack cytoskeleton 
  18. Prokaryotic cells have plasmid whereas eukaryotic cells lack plasmid 
  19. Prokaryotic cells have haploid organism whereas eukaryotic cells have diploid organisms
  20. Eukaryotic cells have well-developed internal membrane whereas prokaryotic cells have a scarce internal membrane 

Similarities between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells

  1. Both are microscopic and only visible through either a light or electron microscope.
  2. Both experience locomotion and chemotaxis
  3. Both cells have a nucleus
  4. Ribosomes are quite present in all cells
  5. Both have similar cytoplasm composition
  6. Both have cell wall for protection
  7. Both have the ability to reproduce
  8. Both experience photosynthesis 
  9. ATP energy is present in both 
  10. Both have 61 codons 

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Comparison Video

Summary

A cell is a unit of life and it is responsible for biological activities taking place in a plant or animal. It doesn’t matter whether it is a prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell.

Prokaryotes are primitive cells with undefined nucleus while eukaryotes are modified cells with a well-developed nucleus.

More Sources and References 

 

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