What is the main difference between plant cell and animal cell?
Plants are the greatest producers and animals are the greatest consumers in the ecosystem. A cell is a fundamental unit of life that brings about plants and animals.
Hence, the core difference between plant and animal cell is that plant cell has a regular shape and larger while the animal cell has an irregular shape and smaller.
Comparison Table between Plant Cell and Animal Cell
|Basic Terms||Plant Cell||Animal Cell|
|Cell Shape||Have a regular shape||Have an irregular or round shape|
|Cell Size||Tend to be larger||Tend to be smaller|
|Enclosed by||Rigid cellulose cell wall||Thin and flexible plasma membrane|
|Vacuole Position||One large central vacuole||Numerous and small vacuoles|
|The flexibility of the Shape||Tend to be rigid. Hence, not prone to changes||Tend to be flexible. Hence, cell prone to changes in shape|
|Plastids||Present for exposing plant cells that contain chloroplast to sunlight||Absent|
|Nucleus Position||Lie on the periphery of the cytoplasm||Lie at the center of the cell|
|Centrioles||Absent except in the motile cell of lower plants||Present|
|Tight junctions and desmosomes||Absent||Present|
|Form of Food Storage||Starch||Glycogen|
|Synthesis||All amino acids, coenzymes, and vitamins||Cannot synthesize amino acids, coenzymes, and vitamins|
|Formation of Spindle||During cell division in anastral i.e. without asters at opposite poles.||During cell division is amphiastral i.e. has an ester at each pole.|
|Cytokinesis Occurrence||Cell plate method.||Construction or furrowing.|
|What Happen in Hypotonic Solution||Do not burst due to the presence of rigid cellulose cell wall||Tend to burst due to lack of cellulose cell wall|
|Mode of Nutrition||Autotrophs||Heterotrophs|
|Mitochondria||Present in fewer numbers||Present in larger numbers|
What Is a Plant Cell?
A plant cell is a basic unit of life for multicellular eukaryotes in the kingdom Plantae. The mode of nutrition is autotrophic in nature.
Some of the key organelles that distinguish plant cells from an animal cell are the cell wall, chloroplast, and vacuole. The size of plant cells typically varies between 10-100 µm.
The cell wall of plant cells is made up of cellulose which provides support and rigidity. Placing the cell in the hypotonic solution will not burst since they can easily withstand the wall pressure.
Main Functions of the Plant Cell Core Organelles
It is divided into the primary cell wall and secondary cell wall. The primary cell wall contains cellulose for rigidity. The secondary cell wall is made of lignin and cellulose for giving the shape.
It is centrally placed and tends to occupy most part of the cell. The organelle contains dissolve the salt, sugars, pigment, and other toxic wastes. The organelle provides physical support and contributes to the color of the plants.
The green plastids containing chlorophylls help the plant to undertake photosynthesis. The chloroplast also contains thylakoids and stroma which help the plant to capture sunlight to synthesize food.
Types of Plant Cells
They are also known as sieve-tube members. They are responsible for transporting food and nutrients to the plant.
They are also known as water-conducting cells. They help in conducting water from the roots to the other part of the plant.
They have a cell wall that is embedded with lignin material. This helps to provide support and rigidity to the plant.
The walls are thin but some parts are thickening. The main function of the cells is to provide structural support.
The cells have thin cell walls. They are responsible for the storage of organic products in plants.
What Is an Animal Cell?
An animal cell is the fundamental unit of life for organisms that belong to the kingdom of Animalia. The mode of nutrition is normally heterotroph in nature.
The size of the animal cell tends to vary between 10-30 µm in diameter. The key organelles in the animal cells are nerves and muscles. They enhance locomotion and other vital functions.
The Main Organelles in Animal Cell and Their Functions
It is responsible for the production of energy in the form of ATP. The energy is generated by oxidation of glucose and fatty acids.
Responsible for degrading worn-out cell membranes and other organelles. It is regarded as the digestive tract of the cell.
It is responsible for controlling movement o substances in and out of the cell. Besides that, it protects internal organelles from mechanical damage.
Its main function is to fuse the plasma membrane to release its content and also store the secreted proteins.
Types of Animal Cells
These are specialized cells that send impulses or information to help the body coordinate and perform their functions.
They are responsible for the protection of internal parts and prevent an excess of loss of water through dehydration.
They help in the transportation of nutrients and hormones within the body. Also, transport oxygen to different tissues and eliminate carbon dioxide from different body tissues.
They help in the protection of the delicate parts of the body and also enhance the movement of the body.
They are responsible for making the bones and skeletons of animals. The main function is to provide structural support and help in the movement of the body.
Main Difference between Plant Cell and Animal Cell In Point Form
- A plant cell is usually larger while the animal cell is smaller
- A plant cell has a rigid and regular shape while the animal cell has an irregular shape
- A plant cell has a permanent shape while animal cell shape is prone to changes
- An animal cell has a nucleus at the center while the plant cell has a nucleus on the periphery
- A plant cell has a cell wall while the animal cell has a plasma membrane
- Plant cell contains centrally placed vacuole while the animal cell has smaller scattered vacuoles
- Plant cell cytokinesis occurs by cell plate formation method while that of an animal cell by furrowing
- The animal cell has centrioles while plant cell have centrioles in lower plants
- Plant cell have chloroplast for photosynthesis while animal cells do not have chloroplast
- The mode of nutrition of plant cells is autotrophs while that of animal cells is heterotrophs.
Similarities between Plant Cell and Animal Cells
- Both have cytoplasm
- Both are eukaryotic cell
- Both have plasma membrane for the regulation of substance movement
- Both have nucleus
- Both contain Golgi apparatus
Frequently Asked Questions (Plant Cell vs Animal Cell)
- Do Animal Cells Have Cytoplasm?
Yes. The intercellular material in the cell is where the exchange of nutrients takes place between organelles.
- Do Plant Cells Have Ribosomes?
Absolutely. They are responsible for degrading worn-out cell membrane materials and other organelles in the cell.
- What Separates Animals from Plants?
Animal cells have a cell membrane that is delicate and soft whereas plant cells have a cell wall that is rigid and tough.
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The main difference between plant cell and animal cell for class 9 is that plant cell has cellulose cell wall for physical protection and structural shape while the animal cell has cell membrane for selective movement of substances. Check the plant cell and animal cell diagram for deeper understanding.
More Sources and References
- Review of Plant and Animal Cells. Microbiology Notes
- Relationship of Plant and Animal Cell. Khan Academy