What is the difference between necrosis and apoptosis?
The multicellular organism tends to experience numerous cell death which occurs naturally or as a result of external factors. The occurrence of cell death can either be necrosis or apoptosis.
The core difference between necrosis and apoptosis is that necrosis is the premature cell death that occurs randomly in the body while apoptosis is the programmed cell death that occurs naturally.
What Is Necrosis?
Necrosis is the premature cell death that occurs randomly in the body due to external factors. Some of the common external factors that cause unnatural cell death are a virus, bacteria, fungi, injuries, toxicity, and infections.
Improper supply of oxygen in the body tissues causes necrosis and it is termed hypoxia. Necrosis is triggered when the cell is unable to undertake homeostasis. The cell organelle raptures dues to excess osmotic pressure.
What Is Apoptosis?
Apoptosis is the natural cell death in the body triggered by biological, chemical, and physical factors. Caspases initiate the whole process of cellular degradation. The enzyme becomes quite active during apoptosis.
The mechanical process requires energy to initiate natural cell death. It is found in the development of the nervous system, immunological reaction, homeostasis, and embryogenesis.
Comparison Chart: Necrosis Vs Apoptosis
|Meaning||Refers to the premature death of cells and tissues in the body||Refers to the natural death of cells and tissues in the body|
|Occurrence||Unregulated event||Regular interval of time|
|Reason||It occurs due to pathogenically reasons||Genetically controlled and natural death|
|Medical treatment||Require treatment since it is abnormal||Does not require treatment since it is normal|
|Effect||Harmful to the body||Beneficial to the body since old cells and tissues are removed|
|Causes||External factors such as virus, fungi, and toxins||It is a self-derived process|
|Cell Shape||Cell swell up||Cell tend to shrink|
|Energy Requirement||Do not require energy||Require energy in form of ATP.|
|Symptoms||Inflammation of the body||No physical symptoms|
Core Differences between Necrosis and Apoptosis In Point Form
- Necrosis is the premature cell death while apoptosis is a natural cell death
- Necrosis is an unregulated random event while apoptosis is a regulated timely event
- Apoptosis is genetically controlled while necrosis is not genetically controlled
- Apoptosis is a pre-planned cell death pathway while necrosis is not a pre-planned cell death pathway
- Necrosis is an abnormal cell death while apoptosis is a normal cell death
- Necrosis require treatment while apoptosis does not require treatment
- Apoptosis requires energy in the form of ATP while necrosis do not need energy for initiation
- Necrosis cell death is detrimental to the organism while apoptosis is beneficial to organisms
- Apoptosis cell death initiates self-generated signals from inside or outside while necrosis cell death occurs after a signal from external factors
- Necrosis causes swelling of the cell while apoptosis causes shrinking of cells
- Necrosis causes disorganization of cells while apoptosis cause fragmentation
- Necrosis is marked by severe inflammation while apoptosis is not marked by any physical symptoms
- Necrosis is a passive process while apoptosis is an active process
- Necrosis occurs in narcotic cells while apoptosis occur in individual cells and tissues
- Necrosis ends in total lysis of cells while apoptosis ends in fragmentation of cells into smaller bodies
- Apoptosis results in pH change into acidic while necrosis does not cause a change in pH of the cell
- The integrity of the mitochondria is maintained in necrosis while apoptosis is lost during the initial stages.
Similarities between Necrosis and Apoptosis
- Both are cell pathways in the organism
- Both are marked by profound membrane dysfunction
- Both are marked by mitochondria dysfunction
- Both experience DNA fragmentation
- Both cell deaths are phagocytes
- Both occur in plants and animals
- Both are absent in prokaryotic organisms
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Both processes occur in multicellular organisms. The core difference between apoptosis and necrosis is that apoptosis is a natural cell and tissue death in the body while necrosis is unnatural cell death in the body.