Monocots and dicots have different structures. An individual can easily tell the difference between these plants based on their root and stem structure.
Plants are classified into flowering and non-flowering plants. Both monocots and dicots are subdivisions of flowering plants.
So, what is the main difference between monocot and dicot stem? The former contains scattered vascular bundles across the stem while the latter contain vascular bundles in one or two ring shape.
However, many learners still find it hard to tell the differences between monocot stem and dicot stem. This article provides a comprehensive explanation of these plant structures in the easiest form.
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Comparison Table (Monocot Stem vs Dicot Stem)
|Basic Terms||Monocot Stem||Dicot Stem|
|Description||The stem has scattered vascular bundles.||The stem has vascular bundles arranged in a ring.|
|Vascular Bundles Arrangement||Scattered within the stem.||Arranged in a ring shape.|
|Number of Vascular Bundles||Numerous vascular bundles||4-8 vascular bundles|
|Size of Vascular Bundles||Inner vascular bundles are larger than outer vascular bundles.||Vascular bundles have equal size|
|Sclerenchymatous Bundle Cap||Absent||Present|
|Sclerenchymatous Bundle Sheath||Present||Absent|
|Metaxylem||Two metaxylem||Numerous metaxylem|
|Xylem Elements||Have circular shape||Have polygonal shape|
|Phloem Parenchyma and Phloem Fibers||Absent||Present|
|Differentiation of Ground Tissue||Not differentiated.||Differentiated into steler and extra-steler tissue.|
|Trichomes||Lack trichomes||Contain trichomes|
|Silica deposition in the Epidermis||Do not undergo silica deposition||Undergo silica deposition|
|Strength of Stem||Hollow at the center||Solid stem|
|Epidermal Hair||Present||Absent or present.|
What Is A Monocot Stem?
A monocot stem is a stem structure present in monocotyledonous plants. The main characteristics of the monocot stem are the scattered vascular bundles.
Monocot plant vascular bundles consist of xylem and phloem. These vascular bundles are surrounded by a sheath of sclerenchyma cells.
Vascular bundles in monocot stems are conjoint, collateral, and closed. The hypodermis of monocot stems composed of sclerenchyma cells.
What Is A Dicot Stem?
A dicot stem is a plant structure that contains a concentric vascular bundles arrangement. The type of vascular bundle arrangement is found in dicotyledonous plants.
Vascular bundles in the dicot stems are cojoined with xylem and phloem tissues. These vascular bundles do not contain a sheath of cells surrounding them.
Vascular bundles of dicot stems are conjoint, collateral, and open. Each vascular bundle is surrounded by parenchyma cells.
Dicot stems contain a prominent cortex and stele. The hypodermis is made up of collenchyma cells. All dicot plants undergo secondary thickening due to cork cambium and vascular cambium.
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Main Differences between Monocot and Dicot Stem
- Monocot stems have scattered vascular bundles. Dicot stems have vascular bundles arranged in a ring shape.
- Dicot stems have pith. Monocot stems lack pith.
- Monocot stems have epidermal hairs. Dicot stems may or may not have epidermal hairs.
- Dicot stems have fewer vascular bundles. Monocot stems have numerous vascular bundles.
- Dicot stems have trichomes. Monocot stems lack trichomes.
- Dicot stem vascular bundles are always open. Monocot stem vascular bundles are always closed.
- Dicot stems experience secondary thickening. Monocot stem do not experience secondary thickening.
- Dicot stem vascular bundles stop functioning when they become old. Monocot stem vascular bundles continue to function regardless of age.
- Dicot stem phloem parenchyma is present. Monocot stem phloem parenchyma is absent.
- Dicot stem ground tissue is differentiated. Monocot stem ground tissue is not differentiated.
Similarities between Monocot and Dicot Stem
- Both occur in flowering plants.
- Both have a thick cuticle layer.
- Both are single-layered epidermis
- Both contain hypodermis
- Both consists of collenchyma tissues
- Xylem and phloem are arranged into vascular bundles
- Both vascular bundles are collateral and surrounded by parenchyma cells.
- Both xylems have metaxylem and protoxylem
- Both stems hold leaves for transpiration and photosynthesis.
Frequently Asked Questions
What Are Medullary Rays?
These are vertical rows of parenchyma cells. They run via the vascular tissues of stems and roots in the plant. They are responsible for the transport and storage of plant nutrients.
What Is a Radicle in Plants?
It is the first part of maturing plant embryo or seedling. Radicles are the first element to come out during the germination process.
What Are Xylem and Phloem?
These are vascular tissue present in the stems and roots. Xylem is situated in the inner side of the stem and phloem on the outermost part. Xylem transport mineral salts and water from the roots. Phloem transport organic nutrients and glucose from the leaves to other parts of the plant.
What is Parenchyma?
These are thin-walled plant tissues present in the cortex or pith of stems and roots. It also provides additional support to the plant.
What Is Collenchyma?
The tissues are present in the growing regions like the shoot and root apex. They give additional support to the plant.
What Is Sclerenchyma?
These are thick-walled tissues that provide optimum support to the plant.
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The main difference between monocot stem and dicot stem is that the former has scattered vascular bundles whereas the latter has vascular bundles arranged in rings.
Monocot stems have hypodermis made up of sclerenchyma and do no contain pith or stele. Dicot stems have hypodermis that contains collenchyma and distinct pith and stele.
Remember you can use vascular arrangement, hypodermis, pith, and stele to tell the differences between monocot stem and dicot stem.
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