25 Remarkable Difference between Mitosis and Meiosis

What is the difference between Mitosis and Meiosis?

Life starts from a single cell that further divides and grows. The transfer of parental DNA to offspring is carried out by both mitosis and meiosis.

However, the two terms used in cell division normally confused a lot of students preparing for exams. The lesson provides the difference between mitosis and meiosis to avoid confusion.

Difference between Mitosis and Meiosis

What Is Mitosis?

Mitosis is a cell division where a cell divides to produce a daughter cell having the same number of chromosomes as the parent cell.

The main function of mitosis is to replace damaged cells, dead cells, and those cells that tend to have a short lifespan. Somatic cells such as fat cells, skin cells, and blood cells tend to experience mitosis.

A daughter cell tends to appear at the end of mitosis and this is a clear indication that they follow certain stages such as Interphase, Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, and Telophase.

What Is Meiosis?

Meiosis is a cell division where the number of chromosomes is reduced by half during the separation of homologous chromosomes in a diploid cell.

The process normally results in the formation of four daughter cells at the end of meiosis. It normally occurs in reproductive cells such as sperm and ovum.

The formation of the four daughter cells occurs after the process goes through certain stages of first meiotic division and second meiotic division.

The first meiotic division stages are Interphase I, Prophase I, Metaphase I, Anaphase I, and Telophase I. The Second meiotic division stages are Prophase II, Metaphase II, Anaphase II, and Telophase II.

Comparison Chart: Mitosis vs MeiosisĀ 

Basic Terms Mitosis Meiosis
Type of ReproductionAsexualSexual
Genetics of Daughter cellSimilarDifferent
Cross OverNo mixingThere is a mixing of chromosomes
The phase of cell divisionOneTwo
Pairing of homologsAbsentPresent
Mother cellsEither Haploid or diploidDiploid only
Number of daughter cells2 diploid cells4 haploid cells
Chromosomes numberRemain the sameReduce by half
Chromosome pairingDo not take placeOccur during zygotene of prophase I and continue up to metaphase I.
FunctionCreation of body cells except for sex cellsCreation of sex cells only
Place of occurrenceSomatic cellsReproductive cells
ChiasmataAbsentPresent during prophase I and metaphase I.
Spindle FibresDisappear during telophaseDo not disappear during telophase I
NucleoliReappear at telophaseAbsent during telophase I
StepsInterphase, Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase.(Meiosis 1) Interphase I, Prophase I, Metaphase I, Anaphase I, Telophase I; (Meiosis 2) Prophase II, Metaphase II, Anaphase II, and Telophase II.
KaryokinesisOccurs in Interphase.Occurs in Interphase I.
CytokinesisThis occurs in Telophase.This occurs in Telophase I and in Telophase II.
Centromeres SplitDuring anaphase.During anaphase II
ProphaseSimple and take a few hoursComplicated and take several days
SynapsisDo not occurOccur during prophase
Exchange of SegmentsTwo chromatids of a chromosome do not exchange segments during prophase.Chromatids of two homologous chromosome exchange segments during crossing over.
Chromosome Alignment in MetaphaseSister chromatids align at the metaphase plate.Tetrads align at the metaphase plate in metaphase I.
Chromosome Separation during anaphaseSister chromatids separate and begin migrating centromere first toward opposite poles of the cell.Homologous chromosomes migrate toward opposite poles of the cell during anaphase I. Sister chromatids do not separate in anaphase I.
Tetrad FormationDo not take placeOccur during prophase I
Discovered byWalther FlemmingOscar Hertwig.

Core Difference between Mitosis and Meiosis In Point FormĀ 

What are the five differences between mitosis and meiosis? They include:

  1. The number of chromosomes during mitosis remains the same while during meiosis reduces by half.
  2. Mitosis takes place in somatic cells while meiosis take place in reproductive cells
  3. Mitosis results in the formation of two daughter cells while meiosis results in the formation of four daughter cells.
  4. Meiosis entails pairing of chromosomes whereas in mitosis there is no pairing of chromosomes
  5. Mitosis has one cell division with four stages while meiosis has two cell divisions with four stages each.

Similarities between Mitosis and Meiosis

  1. Both take part in cells
  2. Both involve multiplication of cells
  3. Both result in the synthesis of DNA
  4. Both happen in the M-phase of the cell cycle.
  5. No cardiac cells and nervous tissue involve in cell division
  6. The nucleus of both can be seen through a light microscope

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Comparison Video

Conclusion

Cell division gives rise to two daughter cells and this is quite vital to promote the existence of all living organisms. Here the parent cell normally split to produce two or more daughter cells.

However, cell division comprises of both mitosis and meiosis. The difference between mitosis and meiosis in tabular form or point form is quite easy to comprehend.

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