10 Difference between Economics and Economy (With Table)

What is the main difference between economics and economy? Economics is a social science that focus on the principles and resource allocation. Economy is the entire system of production, distribution and consumption within a society.

Economics and economy are power terms when dealing with the complexity of financial structures and resource management inside a society. These terms have different significance despite sounding similar.

Economy and economics helps an individual know how money and resources are distributed. This post explains the differences and similarities between economics and economy. Take the time to read through the entire article.

Difference between Economics and Economy with Table

Basic Terms Economics Economy
Definition The study of how individuals and societies allocate resources to meet their needs. The aggregate of all economic activities within a region, country, or the world.
Scope A social science that examines individual and societal choices in resource allocation. The actual system of production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.
Focus Concerned with theories, principles, and models to explain economic behavior. Concerned with the real-world activities and transactions that make up the economy.
Academic Discipline An academic field of study taught in universities and colleges. A broader concept that encompasses various sectors and industries.
Study Subjects Includes microeconomics and macroeconomics, which analyze individual and aggregate economic Comprises sectors like agriculture, finance, manufacturing, services, etc.
Decision-Making Guides decision-makers at the individual, business, and government levels. Involves decisions made by businesses, government, and consumers within the economy.
Goal Seeks to understand economic behavior and provide insights into resource allocation. Focuses on achieving economic growth, stability, and well-being within a society.
Measurement Employs economic indicators like GDP, inflation, and unemployment rates. Employs metrics such as GDP, unemployment, and inflation rates to assess its health.
Influence on Policy Provides the theoretical foundation for economic policies. Drives government policies and regulations, affecting various economic sectors.
Research Areas Explores topics such as market behavior, consumer choices, and economic systems. Explores real-world phenomena like fiscal and monetary policies and trade dynamics.

What Is Economics?

Direct expenses are costs that can be directly and specifically traced to a particular product, project, or department within a business. These expenses are incurred as a direct result of producing goods or providing services.

They are essential in determining the total cost of producing or delivering a specific product or service. Examples of Direct Expenses:

Raw Materials: Costs associated with purchasing materials that are used to create a product, such as wood for making furniture or steel for manufacturing machinery.

Direct Labor: Wages and salaries paid to workers who are directly involved in the production process, like assembly line workers or machine operators.

Manufacturing Supplies: Expenses for supplies and materials necessary for manufacturing, like chemicals for a chemical process or packaging materials for a product.

Production Equipment Rental: Rental fees for specialized equipment used exclusively for a specific project or production run.

Utilities for a Production Facility: Utility costs, such as electricity and water, specifically tied to running production machinery and equipment.

Direct Production Costs: Costs incurred to manufacture a specific product, including costs of manufacturing space, maintenance, and quality control for that product.

What Is Economy?

Indirect expenses, also known as overhead expenses, are costs that cannot be directly traced to a specific product, project, or department within a business.

These expenses are incurred in the general operation of the business and are not tied directly to the production of goods or services. Examples of Indirect Expenses:

Rent: The cost of leasing office space or a production facility that is used for various purposes, including administrative offices, storage, and production areas.

Utilities: Expenses for basic services like electricity, water, and heating that are required for the entire business premises, including both production and administrative areas.

Salaries of Administrative Staff: The wages and salaries of employees working in roles such as management, human resources, accounting, and marketing, who do not directly contribute to production.

Office Supplies: Costs associated with general office supplies like paper, pens, and printer ink that are used throughout the organization.

Insurance Premiums: Payments made for business insurance coverage, which protects the company as a whole rather than a specific product or project.

Depreciation of Office Equipment: The gradual decrease in value of office equipment like computers and furniture over time.

Advertising and Marketing: Expenses related to advertising campaigns and marketing efforts to promote the entire business or its products and services.

Main Difference between Economics and Economy

  1. Economics is the study of how people, businesses, and governments make choices to satisfy their needs when resources are limited. It focuses on behavior, interactions, and decisions related to scarcity.
  2. In contrast, the economy is a structured system that includes the production, distribution, consumption, and exchange of goods and services, as well as employment levels within a nation or region.
  3. Economics is theoretical, filled with theories and models. On the other hand, the economy applies the practical principles and theories of economics.
  4. Economics examines how individuals, families, organizations, and nations make choices when resources are scarce. The economy, however, reveals how resources are distributed in society.
  5. Economics mainly explores how people and entities behave, make choices, and use limited resources, while the economy primarily concerns the organization and operation of a company’s economic activities.

Similarities between Economics and Economy

  1. Both influence government policies and decisions.
  2. Both involve the study of how resources are managed and allocated.
  3. Both concern the allocation of resources to satisfy human needs and wants.
  4. Both can have a global scope, with international implications and connections.
  5. Both analyze human behavior in relation to economic activities and choices.
  6. Both have a significant impact on the well-being and standard of living of a society or region.
  7. Both are interconnected and often studied together to understand economic systems and behavior.
  8. Both have long-term consequences on the prosperity and development of nations or regions.
  9. Both rely on metrics and indicators to measure economic health and performance.


The difference between “economic” and “economy” is quite straightforward. “Economic” is an adjective used to describe things related to the study of resources, choices, and behaviors in the context of satisfying human needs and wants. It pertains to the theoretical and analytical aspects of this field.

On the other hand, “economy” is a noun referring to the actual system or structure through which resources are managed, goods and services are produced and distributed, and people’s needs and wants are met within a specific region, country, or globally. It deals with the practical, real-world activities and transactions that make up the economic life of a society or region.

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