Cells usually undertake crucial processes from within. These processes help to facilitate growth and development in the organisms. But these internal processes need transport mechanisms to be successful.
The transport system enhances the movement of nutrients, chemicals, and other substances within the cells. These transport mechanisms are further classified into active and passive transport.
So, what is the main difference between active and passive transport? Active transport uses energy to pump molecules against concentration gradient while passive transport allows molecules to pass the cell membrane via concentration gradient without the use of cellular energy.
This article provides active and passive transport examples. Take the time to read through it and get to know the similarities between active and passive transport.
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Comparison Table (Active Vs Passive Transport)
|Active Transport||Passive Transport|
|Require ATP to take place||Do not require ATP to take place|
|Involve moment from a region of lower concentration to higher concentration||Involve movement from a region of high concentration to low concentration.|
|Involve the transport of molecules in a cell||Enhance balance and equilibrium|
|Tend to be a dynamic process||Tend to be a physical process|
|Molecules are highly selective||Molecules are non-selective|
|The process tends to be rapid||The process tends to be comparatively slow|
|Transport occurs in one direction||Transport occurs in bidirectional|
|The process can be influenced by temperature changes||The process cannot be influenced by temperature changes|
|Carrier proteins are required||Carrier proteins are not required|
|Endocytosis, Exocytosis, Proton pumps, and Sodium potassium pumps||Filtration, osmosis, and diffusion|
What Is Active Transport?
Active transport is the movement of ions or molecules from a region of low concentration to a region of high concentration against a concentration gradient.
This form of transport normally requires chemical energy and enzymes to facilitate the biological process. ATP is the commonly used energy to pump molecules against the concentration gradient.
Some of the common particles moved by active transport are complex sugar ions, large cells, and proteins among many others.
Active transport is usually classified into two types:
Primary Active Transport
The biological process involves the transfer of molecules from extracellular fluid to the specific transmembrane protein on the cell membrane by the use of ATP.
The process is responsible for regulating the resting potential of cells by checking on the number of sodium and potassium ions present.
Secondary Active Transport
The biological process where the protein found on the cell membrane uses an electromagnetic gradient to move across the membrane. The movement is enhanced by cotransporter.
The cotransporter is further divided into symporters and antiporters. A symporter is where ions and solute move in the same direction.
On the other hand, antiporter is where both solute and ions move in the opposite direction. Here the solute moves along the concentration gradient while the ions against the concentration gradient.
What Is Passive Transport?
Passive transport is a biological process that involves the movement of molecules from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration.
The process does not need the use of energy to transport the molecules. According to research, all soluble products are moved by passive transport.
The main biological process is to maintain balance and attain equilibrium in a cell. It is also responsible for eliminating waste such as carbon dioxide and water from the cell.
Some of the common examples of passive transport include:
Osmosis is a passive transport that involves the movement of solvent molecules from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration through a semipermeable membrane.
Diffusion is another passive transport that entails the movement of solute molecules from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration. It can either be simple or facilitated diffusion.
The biological process involves the movement of solutes, solvents, and ions across a membrane by use of hydrostatic pressure.
Main Difference Between Active and Passive Transport
- Active transport involves the movement of molecules against the concentration gradient by the use of biochemical energy while passive transport is the movement of molecules along a concentration gradient without using energy.
- Active transport involves the movement of molecules from a region of low concentration to a region of high concentration while passive transport involves the movement of solvent molecules from a region of high to low concentration.
- Active transport tends to be rapid and unidirectional while passive transport tends to be comparatively slow and bidirectional.
- Some of the common materials transported by active transport are large cells, proteins, lipids, and complex sugar ions whereas those of passive transport are water, lipids, carbon dioxide, and oxygen.
- Types of active transport are Proton pumps, Exocytosis, Sodium-potassium pumps, and Endocytosis while passive transport is filtration, osmosis, and diffusion.
- Passive transport is meant to maintain balance and equilibrium within or outside the cell whereas active transport to carry ions and molecules.
- Active transport tend to decrease with increasing temperature whereas passive transport is not affected by temperature changes
- Active transport is stopped by metabolic inhibitors whereas passive transport is not affected by metabolic inhibitors
- Active transport either slows down or stops due to oxygen deficiency whereas passive transport is not affected by oxygen deficiency
- Passive transport is a bidirectional process whereas active transport is a unidirectional process
- Passive transport is comparatively slow whereas active transport is a rapid process
- Passive transport is a physical process whereas active transport is a vital process
- Active transport requires carrier proteins whereas passive transport move through the matrix
- Active transport is highly selective whereas passive transport is partially non-selective
- Active Transport require high energy in form of ATP whereas passive transport does not require energy
Similarities between Active and Passive Transport
- Both involve the movement of molecules in and out of the cell
- Both make use of chemical ion channels
- Both occur in the cell
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Both active and passive transport are two important biological processes in the body. They are responsible for the movement of molecules and ions within or outside the cells.
The core difference between active and passive transport the mechanism of transfer of molecules or ions across the membrane.
More Sources and References
Passive Transport. Wikipedia